Leprosy transmission in endemic and non-endemic areas based on the profile of antibody response of PGL-1 and PCR detection of Mycobacterium leprae DNA from nasal swab among healthy children of East Java, Indonesia

Background: East Java has become one of the provinces that have higher prevalence of leprosy, especially in the coastal region. Environment has also influenced for leprosy transmission and early detection could reduce the incidence rate of new leprosy cases. Epidemiological studies of leprosy in children can give an illustration of the important aspects of the environment. Presence of Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) DNA in nasal swabs and seropositivity level among them can describe M. leprae exposure in that area.

Objective: Analyzing PCR from nasal swab and seropositivity level among elementary school children between northern coast and southern coast of East Java province.

Methods: Five hundred and thirty children in Pacitan and Lamongan were involved. Both areas are representation of northern and southern coastal region in East Java Province. After clinical examination, nasal swab and blood samples were obtained. ELISA test was performed to measure the titer of IgM anti Phenolic Glicolipid-1 (PGL-1) antibody then continued by PCR to detect M. leprae DNA.

Results: From 301 students in Pacitan, 25 students (8.3%) are sero-positives and 9 students (2.9%) are PCR positives. from 229 students in Lamongan, 110 (48,3%) students are sero-positives and 49 students (21.4%) are PCR positives. Both are analyzed by Chi-Square, and from the PCR and ELISA, it concluded that there are statistically significant differences between the two regions.

Conclusion: From study above shows that in the northern coast of East Java, incidence of subclinical leprosy is still high, it means that in this area still has a high risk of new cases of leprosy in the future and early detection tools need to performed as a preventative measure.

RAR Related Orphan Receptor Alpha (RORA) Antibody

20-abx119555
  • EUR 314.00
  • EUR 98.00
  • EUR 398.00
  • EUR 495.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 200 ug
  • 300 µg

Intermediate Filament Family Orphan 1 (IFFO1) Antibody

20-abx113262
  • EUR 732.00
  • EUR 398.00
  • 150 ul
  • 50 ul

RAR Related Orphan Receptor Alpha (RORA) Antibody

20-abx338779
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 1845.00
  • EUR 599.00
  • EUR 182.00
  • EUR 300.00
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug

RAR Related Orphan Receptor Alpha (RORA) Antibody

abx237387-100ug 100 ug
EUR 509

RAR Related Orphan Receptor Beta (RORB) Antibody

abx237388-100ug 100 ug
EUR 509

RAR Related Orphan Receptor Beta (RORB) Antibody

20-abx214131
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 300.00
  • 100 ul
  • 50 ul

RAR Related Orphan Receptor Beta (RORB) Antibody

20-abx214132
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 300.00
  • 100 ul
  • 50 ul

Intermediate Filament Family Orphan 1 (IFFO1) Antibody

abx234132-100ug 100 ug
EUR 481

RAR Related Orphan Receptor Alpha (RORA) Antibody

20-abx211380
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 300.00
  • 100 ul
  • 50 ul

RAR Related Orphan Receptor Gamma (RORg) Antibody

20-abx178212
  • EUR 1302.00
  • EUR 620.00
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug

Neuron Derived Orphan Receptor 1 (NOR1) Antibody

20-abx173779
  • EUR 913.00
  • EUR 467.00
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug

RAR Related Orphan Receptor Gamma (RORg) Antibody

20-abx174332
  • EUR 857.00
  • EUR 439.00
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug

RAR Related Orphan Receptor Gamma (RORg) Antibody

20-abx174333
  • EUR 913.00
  • EUR 467.00
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug

RAR Related Orphan Receptor Alpha (RORA) Antibody

20-abx325108
  • EUR 314.00
  • EUR 244.00
  • 100 ug
  • 50 ug

RAR Related Orphan Receptor Alpha (RORa) Antibody

20-abx103508
  • EUR 314.00
  • EUR 133.00
  • EUR 815.00
  • EUR 425.00
  • EUR 272.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

RAR Related Orphan Receptor Gamma (RORg) Antibody

20-abx103509
  • EUR 425.00
  • EUR 133.00
  • EUR 1205.00
  • EUR 578.00
  • EUR 328.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Intermediate Filament Family Orphan 1 (IFFO1) Antibody

abx037159-100ug 100 ug
EUR 391

RAR Related Orphan Receptor Alpha (RORA) Antibody

20-abx005288
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 592.00
  • EUR 182.00
  • EUR 314.00
  • 100 ul
  • 200 ul
  • 20 ul
  • 50 ul

RAR Related Orphan Receptor Gamma (RORG) Antibody

20-abx013514
  • EUR 314.00
  • EUR 98.00
  • EUR 398.00
  • EUR 495.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 200 ug
  • 300 µg

RAR Related Orphan Receptor Alpha (RORA) Antibody

abx025951-400ul 400 ul
EUR 523

RAR Related Orphan Receptor Alpha (RORA) Antibody

abx025951-80l 80 µl
EUR 286

RAR Related Orphan Receptor Beta (RORB) Antibody

abx027769-400ul 400 ul
EUR 523

RAR Related Orphan Receptor Beta (RORB) Antibody

abx027769-80l 80 µl
EUR 286

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase-Like Orphan Receptor 1 Antibody

20-abx115089
  • EUR 732.00
  • EUR 398.00
  • 150 ul
  • 50 ul

RAR Related Orphan Receptor Alpha (RORA) Antibody (HRP)

20-abx336856
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 1845.00
  • EUR 599.00
  • EUR 182.00
  • EUR 300.00
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug

RAR Related Orphan Receptor Alpha (RORA) Antibody (FITC)

20-abx336857
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 1845.00
  • EUR 599.00
  • EUR 182.00
  • EUR 300.00
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug

RAR Related Orphan Receptor Alpha (RORA) Antibody (Biotin)

20-abx336858
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 1845.00
  • EUR 599.00
  • EUR 182.00
  • EUR 300.00
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug

Orphan GPCR SP9155 Agonist P518 (human)

H-5984.0500 0.5mg
EUR 490
Description: Sum Formula: C127H195N37O37; CAS# [600171-68-4] net

Orphan GPCR SP9155 Agonist P518 (human)

H-5984.1000 1.0mg
EUR 853
Description: Sum Formula: C127H195N37O37; CAS# [600171-68-4] net

Orphan GPCR SP9155 Agonist P550 (mouse)

H-5986.0500 0.5mg
EUR 490
Description: Sum Formula: C126H195N37O37; CAS# [600171-70-8] net

Orphan GPCR SP9155 Agonist P550 (mouse)

H-5986.1000 1.0mg
EUR 853
Description: Sum Formula: C126H195N37O37; CAS# [600171-70-8] net

Neuron Derived Orphan Receptor 1 (NOR1) Polyclonal Antibody (Rat)

4-PAC675Ra01
  • EUR 259.00
  • EUR 2708.00
  • EUR 670.00
  • EUR 328.00
  • EUR 219.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Rabbit polyclonal antibody against Rat Neuron Derived Orphan Receptor 1 (NOR1)

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 2 (ROR2) Antibody

20-abx128158
  • EUR 425.00
  • EUR 133.00
  • EUR 1205.00
  • EUR 578.00
  • EUR 328.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 2 (ROR2) Antibody

20-abx121709
  • EUR 300.00
  • EUR 439.00
  • EUR 189.00
  • 100 ul
  • 200 ul
  • 30 ul

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 1 (ROR1) Antibody

abx431844-200ul 200 ul
EUR 384

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 1 (ROR1) Antibody

abx237386-100ug 100 ug
EUR 509

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 1 (ROR1) Antibody

20-abx212778
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 300.00
  • 100 ul
  • 50 ul

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 1 (ROR1) Antibody

20-abx212779
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 300.00
  • 100 ul
  • 50 ul

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 1 (ROR1) Antibody

20-abx174350
  • EUR 857.00
  • EUR 439.00
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 2 (ROR2) Antibody

abx218339-100ug 100 ug
EUR 439

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 2 (ROR2) Antibody

20-abx328028
  • EUR 314.00
  • EUR 244.00
  • 100 ug
  • 50 ug

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 2 (ROR2) Antibody

20-abx334125
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 1845.00
  • EUR 599.00
  • EUR 182.00
  • EUR 300.00
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 2 (ROR2) Antibody

abx448581-100ug 100 ug
EUR 523

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 1 (ROR1) Antibody

abx449254-100ug 100 ug
EUR 551

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 1 (ROR1) Antibody

abx449272-100ug 100 ug
EUR 551

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 1 (ROR1) Antibody

20-abx002361
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 592.00
  • EUR 182.00
  • EUR 314.00
  • 100 ul
  • 200 ul
  • 20 ul
  • 50 ul

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 2 (ROR2) Antibody

20-abx004297
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 592.00
  • EUR 182.00
  • EUR 314.00
  • 100 ul
  • 200 ul
  • 20 ul
  • 50 ul

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 1 (ROR1) Antibody

20-abx104446
  • EUR 425.00
  • EUR 133.00
  • EUR 1205.00
  • EUR 578.00
  • EUR 328.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 1 (ROR1) Antibody

20-abx104447
  • EUR 439.00
  • EUR 133.00
  • EUR 1233.00
  • EUR 592.00
  • EUR 328.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 2 (ROR2) Antibody

abx146445-100ug 100 ug
EUR 391

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 1 (ROR1) Antibody

abx146446-100ug 100 ug
EUR 391

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 1 (ROR1) Antibody

abx011486-100ul 100 ul
EUR 411

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 1 (ROR1) Antibody

abx033600-400ul 400 ul
EUR 523

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 1 (ROR1) Antibody

abx033600-80l 80 µl
EUR 286

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 1 (ROR1) Antibody

abx033601-400ul 400 ul
EUR 523

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 1 (ROR1) Antibody

abx033601-80l 80 µl
EUR 286

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 2 (ROR2) Antibody

abx033602-400ul 400 ul
EUR 523

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 2 (ROR2) Antibody

abx033602-80l 80 µl
EUR 286

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 2 (ROR2) Antibody

abx033603-400ul 400 ul
EUR 523

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 2 (ROR2) Antibody

abx033603-80l 80 µl
EUR 286

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 2 (ROR2) Antibody

abx033604-400ul 400 ul
EUR 523

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 2 (ROR2) Antibody

abx033604-80l 80 µl
EUR 286

Recombinant RAR Related Orphan Receptor Alpha (RORa)

4-RPD947Hu01
  • EUR 483.49
  • EUR 232.00
  • EUR 1538.08
  • EUR 579.36
  • EUR 1058.72
  • EUR 386.00
  • EUR 3695.20
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Description: Recombinant Human RAR Related Orphan Receptor Alpha expressed in: E.coli

Recombinant RAR Related Orphan Receptor Gamma (RORg)

4-RPD949Hu01
  • EUR 488.86
  • EUR 234.00
  • EUR 1558.24
  • EUR 586.08
  • EUR 1072.16
  • EUR 390.00
  • EUR 3745.60
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Description: Recombinant Human RAR Related Orphan Receptor Gamma expressed in: E.coli

Recombinant Neuron Derived Orphan Receptor 1 (NOR1)

4-RPC675Ra01
  • EUR 512.16
  • EUR 240.00
  • EUR 1645.60
  • EUR 615.20
  • EUR 1130.40
  • EUR 406.00
  • EUR 3964.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Description: Recombinant Rat Neuron Derived Orphan Receptor 1 expressed in: E.coli

RAR Related Orphan Receptor Gamma (RORG) Protein

20-abx261968
  • EUR 4490.00
  • EUR 328.00
  • EUR 230.00
  • 1 mg
  • 20 ug
  • 5 ug

Recombinant Human RAR-Related Orphan Receptor C

7-06163 5µg Ask for price

Recombinant Human RAR-Related Orphan Receptor C

7-06164 20µg Ask for price

Recombinant Human RAR-Related Orphan Receptor C

7-06165 1mg Ask for price

PHOSPHO2 Phosphatase Orphan-2 Human Recombinant Protein

PROTQ8TCD6 Regular: 10ug
EUR 317
Description: PHOSPHO2 Human Recombinant produced in E.coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 265 amino acids (1-241) and having a molecular mass of 30.3kDa.;PHOSPHO2 is fused to a 24 amino acid His-tag at N-terminus & purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques.

PHOSPHO1 Phosphatase Orphan-1 Human Recombinant Protein

PROTQ8TCT1 Regular: 10ug
EUR 317
Description: Human Phospho1 Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 295 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 31.3 kDa. The Human Phospho1 is fused to a 14 aa His tag at N-Terminus. Human Phosphocholine Phosphatase is purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques.

RAR Related Orphan Receptor Alpha (RORa) Polyclonal Antibody (Human, Mouse)

4-PAD947Hu01
  • EUR 247.00
  • EUR 2510.00
  • EUR 625.00
  • EUR 310.00
  • EUR 214.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Rabbit polyclonal antibody against Human, Mouse RAR Related Orphan Receptor Alpha (RORa)

RAR Related Orphan Receptor Gamma (RORg) Polyclonal Antibody (Human, Mouse)

4-PAD949Hu01
  • EUR 247.00
  • EUR 2510.00
  • EUR 625.00
  • EUR 310.00
  • EUR 214.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Rabbit polyclonal antibody against Human, Mouse RAR Related Orphan Receptor Gamma (RORg)

Neuron Derived Orphan Receptor 1 (NOR1) Polyclonal Antibody (Rat), APC

4-PAC675Ra01-APC
  • EUR 364.00
  • EUR 3545.00
  • EUR 980.00
  • EUR 467.00
  • EUR 227.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Rabbit polyclonal antibody against Rat Neuron Derived Orphan Receptor 1 (NOR1). This antibody is labeled with APC.

Neuron Derived Orphan Receptor 1 (NOR1) Polyclonal Antibody (Rat), Biotinylated

4-PAC675Ra01-Biotin
  • EUR 325.00
  • EUR 2658.00
  • EUR 777.00
  • EUR 400.00
  • EUR 225.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Rabbit polyclonal antibody against Rat Neuron Derived Orphan Receptor 1 (NOR1). This antibody is labeled with Biotin.

Neuron Derived Orphan Receptor 1 (NOR1) Polyclonal Antibody (Rat), Cy3

4-PAC675Ra01-Cy3
  • EUR 444.00
  • EUR 4685.00
  • EUR 1265.00
  • EUR 581.00
  • EUR 261.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Rabbit polyclonal antibody against Rat Neuron Derived Orphan Receptor 1 (NOR1). This antibody is labeled with Cy3.

Neuron Derived Orphan Receptor 1 (NOR1) Polyclonal Antibody (Rat), FITC

4-PAC675Ra01-FITC
  • EUR 311.00
  • EUR 2856.00
  • EUR 804.00
  • EUR 393.00
  • EUR 202.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Rabbit polyclonal antibody against Rat Neuron Derived Orphan Receptor 1 (NOR1). This antibody is labeled with FITC.

Neuron Derived Orphan Receptor 1 (NOR1) Polyclonal Antibody (Rat), HRP

4-PAC675Ra01-HRP
  • EUR 332.00
  • EUR 3089.00
  • EUR 866.00
  • EUR 421.00
  • EUR 213.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Rabbit polyclonal antibody against Rat Neuron Derived Orphan Receptor 1 (NOR1). This antibody is labeled with HRP.

Neuron Derived Orphan Receptor 1 (NOR1) Polyclonal Antibody (Rat), PE

4-PAC675Ra01-PE
  • EUR 311.00
  • EUR 2856.00
  • EUR 804.00
  • EUR 393.00
  • EUR 202.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Rabbit polyclonal antibody against Rat Neuron Derived Orphan Receptor 1 (NOR1). This antibody is labeled with PE.

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 1 (ROR1) Antibody (Biotin)

20-abx106039
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 1845.00
  • EUR 599.00
  • EUR 182.00
  • EUR 300.00
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 1 (ROR1) Antibody (FITC)

20-abx107453
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 1845.00
  • EUR 599.00
  • EUR 182.00
  • EUR 300.00
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 1 (ROR1) Antibody (HRP)

20-abx108873
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 1845.00
  • EUR 599.00
  • EUR 182.00
  • EUR 300.00
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 2 (ROR2) Antibody (HRP)

20-abx338152
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 1845.00
  • EUR 599.00
  • EUR 182.00
  • EUR 300.00
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 2 (ROR2) Antibody (FITC)

20-abx338153
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 1845.00
  • EUR 599.00
  • EUR 182.00
  • EUR 300.00
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 2 (ROR2) Antibody (Biotin)

20-abx338154
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 1845.00
  • EUR 599.00
  • EUR 182.00
  • EUR 300.00
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 2 (ROR2) Antibody (ALP)

abx445965-100ug 100 ug
EUR 578

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 2 (ROR2) Antibody (APC)

abx445966-100ug 100 ug
EUR 578

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 2 (ROR2) Antibody (Biotin)

abx445967-100ug 100 ug
EUR 578

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 2 (ROR2) Antibody (FITC)

abx445968-100ug 100 ug
EUR 565

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 2 (ROR2) Antibody (HRP)

abx445969-100ug 100 ug
EUR 565

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 2 (ROR2) Antibody (PerCP)

abx445971-100ug 100 ug
EUR 578

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 2 (ROR2) Antibody (RPE)

abx445972-100ug 100 ug
EUR 578

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 2 (ROR2) Antibody (Streptavidin)

abx445973-100ug 100 ug
EUR 578

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Like Orphan Receptor 1 (ROR1) Antibody (APC)

abx449264-100ug 100 ug
EUR 606

Optimized broad-range real-time PCR-based method for bacterial screening of platelet concentrates

Bacterial contamination of blood components remains a major challenge in transfusion medicine, particularly, platelet concentrates (PCs) due to the storage conditions that support bacterial proliferation. In this study, we develop a rapid, sensitive and specific real-time PCR protocol for bacterial screening of PCs. An internally controlled real-time PCR-based method was optimized and validated with our proprietary 16S Universal PCR Master Mix (IBMP/Fiocruz), which targets a conserved region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Nonspecific background DNA was completely eliminated by treating the PCR Master Mix with ethidium monoazide (EMA).

A lower limit of detection was observed for 10 genome equivalents with an observed Ct value of 34±1.07 in calibration curve generated with 10-fold serial dilutions of E. coli DNA. The turnaround time for processing, including microbial DNA purification, was approximately 4 hours. The developed method showed a high sensitivity with no non-specific amplification and a lower time-to-detection than traditional microbiological methods, demonstrating it to be an efficient means of screening pre-transfusion PCs.

Evaluation of sample pooling for diagnosis of COVID-19 by Real time PCR– A resource saving combat strategy

Background& objectives: Although about 80% of COVID-19 cases are reported to be mild, the remaining 20% of cases often result in a severe disease with the potential of crushing already overstrained health care services. There has been sustainable growth of COVID-19 cases worldwide since mid-May 2020. In order to keep tabs on community transmission of COVID-19 infection screening of the samples from large population is needed which includes asymptomatic/symptomatic individuals along with migrant population. This requires extra resources, man power and time for detection of SARS-CoV-2by RT-PCR. In current scenario pooled sample testingstrategy advocated by ICMR, New Delhiis a new approach which is very promising in resource limited settings. In this study we have evaluated pooled strategy in terms of accurate testing results, utilization of consumables and identification of border line positive cases.

Materials & methods: Between April-June 2020 we performed COVID-19 testing by RTPCR from areas with varying prevalence of population referred to COVID laboratory, Dr RMLIMS, Lucknow. In a first step the samples are collated into pools of 5 or 10.These pools are tested by RT-PCR. Negative Pools were reported as negative whereas positive pools of 5 and 10 are then deconvoluted and each sample is tested individually.

Results: In the present study, we tested 4620 samples in 462 pools of 10 and 14940 samples in 2990 pools of 5. Among 10 samples pool 61 (13%) pools flagged positive in first step. In second step among 61 pools (610 samples) deconvoluted strategy was followed in which 72 individual samples came positive. Pooled-sample testing strategy helps saves substantial resources and time during surge testing and enhanced pandemic surveillance. This approach requires around 76% to 93% less tests done in low to moderate prevalence settings and group sizes up to 5-10 in a population, compared to individual testing.

Conclusions: Pooled-sample PCR analysis strategies can save substantial resources and time for COVID-19 mass testing in comparison to individual testing without compromising the result outcome of test. In particular, pooled-sample approach can facilitate mass screening in early coming stages of COVID-19 outbreaks, especially in low- and middle-income settings and control the spread by meticulous testing of all risk groups. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Enterovirus PCR kit

PCR-H433-48R 50T
EUR 823

Enterovirus PCR kit

PCR-H433-96R 100T
EUR 859

Mengovirus PCR kit

PCR-H453-48R 50T
EUR 823

Mengovirus PCR kit

PCR-H453-96R 100T
EUR 1113

Astrovirus PCR kit

PCR-H491-48R 50T
EUR 823

Astrovirus PCR kit

PCR-H491-96R 100T
EUR 1113

Calicivirus PCR kit

PCR-H493-48R 50T
EUR 823

Calicivirus PCR kit

PCR-H493-96R 100T
EUR 1113

Adenovirus PCR kit

PCR-H501-48D 50T
EUR 453

Adenovirus PCR kit

PCR-H501-96D 100T
EUR 572

Polyomavirus PCR kit

PCR-H515-48D 50T
EUR 453

Polyomavirus PCR kit

PCR-H515-96D 100T
EUR 572

Ruminococcus PCR kit

PCR-H619-48D 48T
EUR 453

Ruminococcus PCR kit

PCR-H619-96D 96T
EUR 572

Bifidobacterium PCR kit

PCR-H621-48D 48T
EUR 453

Bifidobacterium PCR kit

PCR-H621-96D 96T
EUR 572

Sapovirus PCR kit

PCR-H630-48R 50T
EUR 823

Sapovirus PCR kit

PCR-H630-96R 100T
EUR 1113

Parechovirus PCR kit

PCR-H642-48R 50T
EUR 678

Parechovirus PCR kit

PCR-H642-96R 100T
EUR 1113

Metapneumovirus PCR kit

PCR-H643-48R 50T
EUR 823

Metapneumovirus PCR kit

PCR-H643-96R 100T
EUR 1113

Entamoeba PCR kit

PCR-H683-48D 50T
EUR 453

Entamoeba PCR kit

PCR-H683-96D 100T
EUR 572

Acanthamoeba PCR kit

PCR-H684-48D 50T
EUR 453

Acanthamoeba PCR kit

PCR-H684-96D 100T
EUR 572

Echovirus PCR kit

PCR-H722-48D 50T
EUR 453

Echovirus PCR kit

PCR-H722-96D 100T
EUR 572

ranavirus PCR kit

PCR-V337-48D 50T
EUR 453

ranavirus PCR kit

PCR-V337-96D 100T
EUR 572

Ruminococcus PCR kit

PCR-V619-48D 50T
EUR 425.8
Description: An conventional PCR kit for detection of Ruminococcus

Ruminococcus PCR kit

PCR-V619-96D 100T
EUR 521.5
Description: An conventional PCR kit for detection of Ruminococcus

Bifidobacterium PCR kit

PCR-V621-48D 50T
EUR 425.8
Description: An conventional PCR kit for detection of Bifidobacterium

Bifidobacterium PCR kit

PCR-V621-96D 100T
EUR 521.5
Description: An conventional PCR kit for detection of Bifidobacterium

48 WELL PCR MICROPLATE

PCR-48-C 10/pk
EUR 102
Description: PCR Plates & Tubes; PCR Strip Tubes and Strip Caps - Axygen

Microthrix parvicella PCR kit

PCR-A575-48D 50T
EUR 453

Microthrix parvicella PCR kit

PCR-A575-96D 100T
EUR 572

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis PCR kit

PCR-H190-48D 50T
EUR 453

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis PCR kit

PCR-H190-96D 100T
EUR 572

Neisseria meningitidis PCR kit

PCR-H421-48D 50T
EUR 453

Neisseria meningitidis PCR kit

PCR-H421-96D 100T
EUR 572

Neisseria sp. PCR kit

PCR-H422-48D 50T
EUR 453

Neisseria sp. PCR kit

PCR-H422-96D 100T
EUR 572

Haemophilus influenzae PCR kit

PCR-H423-48D 50T
EUR 453

Haemophilus influenzae PCR kit

PCR-H423-96D 100T
EUR 572

Trypanosoma cruzi PCR kit

PCR-H425-48D 50T
EUR 453

Trypanosoma cruzi PCR kit

PCR-H425-96D 100T
EUR 572

Cronobacter sakazakii PCR kit

PCR-H431-48D 50T
EUR 453

Cronobacter sakazakii PCR kit

PCR-H431-96D 100T
EUR 572

Clostridium botulinum PCR kit

PCR-H432-48D 50T
EUR 453

Clostridium botulinum PCR kit

PCR-H432-96D 100T
EUR 572

Virus Zika PCR kit

PCR-H434-48R 50T
EUR 823

Virus Zika PCR kit

PCR-H434-96R 100T
EUR 1113

Corynebacterium diphtheriae PCR kit

PCR-H435-48D 50T
EUR 453

Corynebacterium diphtheriae PCR kit

PCR-H435-96D 100T
EUR 572

Legionella pneumophila PCR kit

PCR-H436-48D 50T
EUR 453

Legionella pneumophila PCR kit

PCR-H436-96D 100T
EUR 572

Bordetella pertussis PCR kit

PCR-H437-48D 50T
EUR 453

Bordetella pertussis PCR kit

PCR-H437-96D 100T
EUR 572

Bordetella parapertussis PCR kit

PCR-H438-48D 50T
EUR 453

Bordetella parapertussis PCR kit

PCR-H438-96D 100T
EUR 572

Chlamydia pneumoniae PCR kit

PCR-H439-48D 50T
EUR 453

Chlamydia pneumoniae PCR kit

PCR-H439-96D 100T
EUR 572

Pneumocystis jiroveci PCR kit

PCR-H440-48D 50T
EUR 453

Pneumocystis jiroveci PCR kit

PCR-H440-96D 100T
EUR 572

Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans PCR kit

PCR-H446-48D 50T
EUR 453

Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans PCR kit

PCR-H446-96D 100T
EUR 572

Bacteroides fragilis PCR kit

PCR-H447-48D 50T
EUR 453

Bacteroides fragilis PCR kit

PCR-H447-96D 100T
EUR 572

Candida sp. PCR kit

PCR-H448-48D 50T
EUR 453

Candida sp. PCR kit

PCR-H448-96D 100T
EUR 572

Enterococcus sp. PCR kit

PCR-H449-48D 50T
EUR 453

Enterococcus sp. PCR kit

PCR-H449-96D 100T
EUR 572

Neisseria gonorrhoeae PCR kit

PCR-H450-48D 50T
EUR 453

Neisseria gonorrhoeae PCR kit

PCR-H450-96D 100T
EUR 572

Dengue virus PCR kit

PCR-H451-48R 50T
EUR 823

Dengue virus PCR kit

PCR-H451-96R 100T
EUR 1113

Chlamydia trachomatis PCR kit

PCR-H452-48D 50T
EUR 453

Chlamydia trachomatis PCR kit

PCR-H452-96D 100T
EUR 572

Human papillomavirus PCR kit

PCR-H454-48D 50T
EUR 453

Human papillomavirus PCR kit

PCR-H454-96D 100T
EUR 572

Parvovirus В19 PCR kit

PCR-H455-48D 50T
EUR 453

Parvovirus В19 PCR kit

PCR-H455-96D 100T
EUR 572

Treponema pallidum PCR kit

PCR-H456-48D 50T
EUR 453

Treponema pallidum PCR kit

PCR-H456-96D 100T
EUR 572